Glossary: coordination



Words or phrases are coordinated if they are linked as an equal pair by a coordinating conjunction (i.e. and, but, or).

In the examples below, the coordinated elements are shown in bold, and the conjunction is in red.

  • Susan and Amra met in a cafe. [links the words Susan and Amra as an equal pair]
  • They talked and drank tea for an hour. [links two clauses as an equal pair]
  • Susan got on a bus but Amra walked. [links two clauses as an equal pair]

The difference between coordination and subordination is that, in subordination, the two linked elements are not equal.

Not coordination: They ate before they met. [before introduces a subordinate clause]

In coordination, elements or strings of elements (conjoins) are juxtaposed by means of a coordinating conjunction. E.g. Bulgaria and Greece.

08: Linking (1)

Year 2 Guided Grammar Lessons #8

This is Lesson #8 of a unit of 10.

Go to the Start

Teacher Slide

Objective: grammar

To understand how we can link words, phrases, and clauses using coordination.

Objective: writing

To encourage pupils to join words, phrases and sentences in their writing using for, and, nor, but, or, yet and so.

No 'AND's

In this lesson, students build a story without the word and.


  • Recognise the uses and meaning of the word and.
  • Become more conscious of our own use of the word and.

Lesson Plan

The teacher explains that today, we will tell a story. There's only one rule: no one is allowed to use the word and.

Phrases: coordination

In this lesson, students look at phrases conjoined by coordinating conjunctions.


  • Identify different types of phrases which have been conjoined with coordinating conjunctions.
  • Consider the effect of conjoining more than one phrase.
  • Consider the effect of omitting coordinating conjunctions.

Lesson plan

Click on the interactive whiteboard icon (top right) and work through the following slides with students.

Y6 GPaS Test: Coordinated or not coordinated?

In each of the following examples, indicate whether the example is coordinated or not coordinated:


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